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Pedagogical approaches

Videos showing teachers how to incorporate Asia content into English and History encourage teachers to consider the pedagogical approaches which can be used to teach Asia content. Activities step teachers through 103 approaches to use in English and History and point teachers to online resources which provide background knowledge to teaching about Asia. Twenty-first century pedagogies are highlighted in this section and the What Works research provides examples of how teachers are using ICT in delivering Asia-relevant capabilities.

Task 1: Pedagogy and teaching Asia content in English

Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching. It is about how teachers sequence and scaffold learning, the ways in which content is delivered for the needs of different learners and what students learn in this complex process. There is no special pedagogy for teaching Asia content in English or History. The pedagogies that apply to the quality teaching of any subject also apply to teaching the Asia priority.

  • Discuss with your faculty whether there are particular pedagogies that are specific to teaching about Asia.
  • Consider this statement with colleagues: Mindfulness of Asia content is a predisposition of Asia-literate teachers in English.

Twentieth century educational theorists Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky discussed pedagogy as the development of a range of mental processes that include analysing, reflecting, creating, recalling, synthesising, evaluating and learning how to learn.

The Australian Curriculum, through its content descriptors, points teachers to pedagogical approaches by using the language of pedagogy.

The English content descriptors use terms such as analyse and evaluateapply increasing knowledgerecognise and explain; construct; reread; create; review; and edit.

  • Choose a year level that you are teaching and read the content descriptors that focus on the Asia priority. List the verbs that describe the pedagogical approach suggested. Which of the approaches could be incorporated into your teaching?

103 strategies for content delivery

Asia content delivery, like the content of all other subjects, requires the teacher to take a range of approaches.

The Reading rockets website lists 103 things to do before/during/after reading. These approaches apply to both English and History and can be adapted for all year levels.

  • Choose three of the 103 things to do that are new to you to trial with your classes in teaching Asia content.

Task 2: Pedagogy and teaching Asia content in History

Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching. It is about how teachers sequence and scaffold learning, the ways in which content is delivered for the needs of different learners and what students learn in this complex process. There is no special pedagogy for teaching Asia content in English or History. The pedagogies that apply to the quality teaching of any subject also apply to teaching the Asia priority.

  • Discuss with your faculty whether there are particular pedagogies that are specific to teaching about Asia.
  • Consider this statement with colleagues: Mindfulness of Asia content is a predisposition of Asia literate teachers in English and History.

Twentieth century educational theorists Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky discussed pedagogy as the development of a range of mental processes that include: analysing, reflecting, creating, recalling, synthesising, evaluating and learning how to learn.

The Australian Curriculum through its content descriptors points teachers to pedagogical approaches by using the language of pedagogy.

In History, terms used include primary and secondary sources; analyse; identify; compare from a range of sources; explain and communicate; inquire; sequence; understand; and interpret.

  • Choose a year level that you are teaching and read the content descriptors that focus on the Asia priority. List the verbs that describe the pedagogical approach suggested. Which of the approaches could be incorporated into your teaching?

103 strategies for content delivery

Asia content delivery, like the content of all other subjects, requires the teacher to take a range of approaches.

The Reading rockets website lists 103 things to do before/during/after reading. These approaches apply to both English and History and can be adapted for all year levels.

  • Choose three of the 103 things to do that are new to you to trial with your classes in teaching Asia content.

Task 3: Pedagogical approaches

Watch this video on the right of Kay Bishop discussing the pedagogical approach used in the Year 9 History module: Strangers bearing gifts – China and the West, and consider the following:

  • What pedagogical approaches has Kay Bishop used in writing this module and why did she take this approach?
  • Go to the module Strangers bearing gifts and review the images used and consider how you might use images in teaching Asia content in History.
  • What does Kay Bishop mean by beginning a historical learning sequence with an 'orientation phase'?
  • The module refers teachers to the Harvard Extension School, a series of lectures on aspects of China's history. Consider what background knowledge you or your faculty need to undertake to familiarise yourself with Asia's histories.

103 strategies for content delivery

Asia content delivery, like the content of all other subjects, requires the teacher to take a range of approaches.

The Reading rockets website lists 103 things to do before/during/after reading. These approaches apply to both English and History and can be adapted for all year levels.

  • Choose three of the 103 things to do that are new to you to trial with your classes in teaching Asia content.

Task 4: Three pedagogical approaches

History – secondary

In this video Tom Ryan, a secondary history teacher, provides support to Sharna Carter in a summative lesson on Asian history.

  • Watch the video and decide what opportunities there are for mentoring in your faculty.
  • What pedagogical approaches do Sharna and Tom use in this lesson extract?
  • How do the student responses indicate that the pedagogy is effective?

Read the years 7–8 History module, Feudal Japan – the Asia Pacific world depth study, Teacher preparation of the Year 8 History module, Feudal Japan – the Asia Pacific depth study, and Topic 1, The Macartney mission to Peking 1793 of the Year 9 Strangers bearing gifts: China and the West module.

  • What advice is given to teachers in preparation for the teaching of theses histories?
  • In the year 9 Strangers bearing gifts: China and the West module, Topic 1 uses two different images of the same event to analyse primary sources of evidence. What pedagogies are used to present different perspectives or points of view?
  • How can this pedagogical approach be used in teaching Asia content in the range of topics in years 7 to 10 History?

English – secondary

View the video to the right of Jane McGennisken, a secondary English teacher, and consider the following:

  • What pedagogical approaches does Jane McGennisken use to focus on the themes in Chinese Cinderella?
  • What strategies does Jane use to deconstruct Chinese Cinderella?
  • How does Jane link the novel to the students' life experiences and knowledge?
  • Read the culminating activity, Making a zine, in the years 7–8 English module: Stories that change lives. Which of the pedagogies listed could you use with students?
  • The year 9–10 module, Understanding China through literature, has a section on Identity and belonging, and an assessment task on intercultural understanding. Consider how this pedagogical approach can be used when teaching Asia content in English at other year levels.

English and History – primary

In the last video to the right, watch how Kate Huon is teaching an integrated History–English lesson on Asian explorers and discoveries using the inquiry approach.

  • How does Kate incorporate Asia content into her teaching?
  • What pedagogical strategies are used to teach Asia content?
  • Kate's colleague is team teaching with her because 'she has more knowledge and background'. What opportunities are there for you to share knowledge and team-teach at your school?
  • The year 5–6 module, Walking in the footsteps of the dragon, uses a visualising pedagogy sketch-to-stretch for reading New Gold Mountain. Consider how this pedagogical approach can also be used in learning about intercultural understanding.
  • Read Australia as a nation in the years 5–6 module and choose two pedagogies that are unfamiliar to you and trial them with your students.

Task 5: What works in using ICT in schools to support the delivery of Asia-related capabilities

The Australian Curriculum states that teachers will use ICT delivery and pedagogies. The Australian professional standards for teachers includes knowledge and use of ICTs as a focus area on the continuum of career stages.

The What Works 4: using ICT in schools to support the delivery of Asia-relevant capabilities research report says that:

'Effective use of ICT requires teachers to act differently (Bell, 2001). The more teachers understand the possibilities of ICT use in the classroom, the more their teaching practice is required to evolve (UNESCO, 2005).'

All of the What Works 4 illustrations (video and written) show the essential nature of targeted professional learning. Using ICT in the classroom is challenging and can be uncomfortable, especially for the many teachers who are starting out in this space.

Likewise, intercultural communication and understanding can be a tricky area for many teachers and students. What Works 4 demonstrates that up-skilling teachers in the use of ICT for the specific purposes of developing students' Asian language proficiency, Asia literacy and/or intercultural understanding requires a more tailored approach beyond generic professional learning around ICT-based pedagogies.

  • Read the five lessons learned summary in the report. What messages from the summary can inform using ICTs in the teaching of Asia content in English–History?

The research report identifies four stages on a continuum towards using ICT for deep and transformative learning: emerging, applying, infusing and transforming.

  • Plot yourself and your faculty on the continuum.
  • What steps could be taken to move towards the transformative stage?

Marion Hing, Bomaderry High School, works in a cluster of schools.

  • What does teacher Marion Hing say have been the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in implementing Asia content into the curriculum?

Task 6: Pedagogies for the 21st century – having the courage to see freshly

'… educators and systems spent the 20th century perfecting the 19th century model of schooling.' Stephen Heppel

A paper presented to the Australian Council for Education Leaders (PDF 334KB) discusses the four pedagogies related to the use of ICT they are pedagogies which:

  1. personalise learning
  2. enable the learner
  3. highlight the interpersonal nature of learning
  4. contribute to building the learning community

At a faculty meeting provide opportunities to explore the range of resources and tools below, which support an Asia-literate curriculum. These resources can be curated using a Scoop.it! account.

  • Explore contemporary Asia through online newspapers.
  • Walk the streets of Asia with Google Earth.
  • Investigate Asia for Educators.
  • Journey into the lives of women from across Asia in Mama-Asia.
  • Learn with experts through Skype education.
  • Document a shared history of Asia and Australia with Making History.
  • Create videos with GoAnimate  and Tellagami.
  • Consider what steps can be taken by the faculty to use technology to create Asia-literate teachers as learners within and beyond the school.
  • What strategies can be implemented in the faculty for it to become an effective learning unit using Web 2.0 technologies?

Acknowledgements

Videos: AEF

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